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The quality of a carpet depends on various elements and the fiber employed is one of the crucial elements. The higher the quality of the fiber, the long-lasting is the endurance of the carpet. There is variety of fibers used, jute, hemp, cotton, silk, wool, etc. Best known since century’s wool is one fiber that bears wear for years. The grade of the fiber leads the quality; finest quality wool serves more than twenty years. Manmade or semi-synthetic fibers such as rayon and viscose are also available, where silk is quite expensive on the pocket. These fibers bestow sheen that is akin to that of silk and are comparatively less costly.


Weave type also is major factor, hand-knotted carpets are known best for their endurance. Hand-tufted are comparatively less preferred to that of hand knotted ones, as they lack knots and are woven by loops. Nevertheless, flat weaves, hand-loom, and Tibetan are the other types of weaving rugs and carpets.


  • Fiber
  • Grade
  • Weave type
  • Texture
  • Density of knots
  • Thickness
  • Pile


Fiber:
Each fiber boasts exclusive characteristics and it plays a crucial role in endurance of a carpet. The strand implied could be sole or even a blend of fibers, which gives it that luster, sturdiness, and longevity.
Various types of fibers are used to manufacture floor coverings from pure organic to manmade synthetic fibers. Wool and cotton are the essentials implied to make floor coverings, tapestries and hangings. Not only they accentuate the place but they insulate the room, it is very healthy way of insulating. The properties of these natural fibers have proved themselves since centuries. Fiber such as silk has been in demand for its multiple characteristics.
Carpets should be placed considering the traffic and endurance of fiber. The weave type should be such that it can bear the daily wear and tear. Endurance of a carpet completely relies on its fiber. Proficiently woven fine quality of fiber will serve for many years.


Wool and silk are the best known fibers, but along with these now-a-days many other synthetic and semi-synthetic fibers are also utilized. Rayon and Viscose are few fibers that may substitute the most precious fiber ‘silk’. Other natural fibers such as hemp, sisal, jute, coir are renowned in carpet industry.

How to choose fiber?
You can choose the fiber by looking on for the swatches available with the manufacturer. The texture of the carpet is also more often dependent on the type of fiber you choose. Manufacturers and retailers have samplers with them, the yarn and the ready samples that can help you understand the yarn, and will make it is easy for you to choose. Make sure that you buy from a reliable vendor.
  • Silk
  • Wool
  • Cotton
  • Jute
  • Hemp
  • Sisal
  • Sea grass
  • Polyester
  • Viscose
  • Rayon


Grade:
Have you ever noticed carpets with very thick strand of fiber? Some fibers embrace beautiful finesse and sheen over them, and contrarily others show comparatively less refinement and thickness.
Fibers when processed for weaving are classified in many qualities according to their grades, measured on various scales. Moreover, it is not actually the thickness on which the fiber is graded. The fiber is ranked by professionals according to its quality, and the finesse of high graded fiber is unsurpassed. Such high grade fibers are capable of bearing wear and tear for a much longer time and are much reliable for longevity.


Fibers are implied depending on the type and quality of the carpet. Other than grading, fibers are also blended to enhance quality, sheen, look and help reduce shedding. Various combinations serve well, for instance, high and low quality of wool is mixed to make carpet cost effective. New Zealand wool boasts high grade and known for its quality, sheen, resilience tendency to bear the wear and lessen shedding. Mixing of New Zealand wool with others results in additional sheen and also lowers the tendency to shed.


Another known blend is nylon and wool, which results in adding up strength. Blending of various graded silk is even common in the industry resulting cost effectiveness.
Nevertheless, there are other factors also that may lead to blending fibers. Nowadays, people are very peculiar with their choices, where some may not like that extremely shiny look, which ultimately leads to blending a proportion of wool with lustrous fibers, giving a more subtle appearance. Contradictory, the demand to add some sheen in wool results in mixing viscose. The blend of viscose with wool adds sheen, enhancing the look of the carpet.

Weave type:
The beauty of the carpet relies on the type of weaving and the fiber employed. The quality and the charm that hand-knotted carpets embrace is unparalleled. Amateur may not be able to distinguish the difference between a hand-made and a machine-made carpet.


Hand-knotted carpets boast numerous handmade knots made by proficient artisans. Per square inch of a carpet can embrace 64 to more than 250 knots, depending on the variety. Made exclusively, handmade carpets are more enduring, comparatively expensive, but very attractive.


Contradicted to hand-made ones, machine made carpets are less expensive. Machine made carpets do not embrace knots, loops are made via machine, which at times are later backed with latex and cloth for endurance. These carpets are less-problematic, easy to make and comparatively manufacturing cost is less and that is the reason why manufacturers offers them and emphasize the buyer to choose one. Although, making carpet via machine does not disgraces its value and quality, poor quality of fiber is implied to lower down the cost. Such deals turn to be scam, as carpets are judged by the years they serve and not on their initial beauty.


One who discerns the difference between the two will definitely opt for a hand-made one, for its perceived value.
The other category in construction of floor covering is hand-tufted. A hand- tufted carpet is made using a tufting gun that is operated manually. The tufting gun is equipped with all the required tools, needle and cutter, it make the loop via specially designed needle and incises. The carpet is then backed with latex to provide it support. These carpets consume less time in production as compared to hand-knotted.


Flat-weave carpets are pile less and the production is done via surrounding the yarn over and under the warp and weft. Such carpets are suitable for high traffic areas, they are also easy to maintain and are prone to bear more wear and tear. Nevertheless, the only thing that lacks in a flat weave carpet is that plush and supple texture, which are carpets known for. Dhurries and Kilims best exemplifies a flat weave floor covering. Hand loom carpets are made on wooden loom, operated manually, the process is similar to that of flat-weave and the difference is because of the mechanism. Generally, flat woven, these may embrace pile at times.


Tibetan carpets are known round the world as high valued carpets, the unique art of weaving has made them a piece of craftsmanship. Tibetan is actually the type of weaving that gives a Tibetan carpet that touch. The knots in Tibetan weave are hand-made, the loops are made on a rod, when a row of knots is complete, the pile is cut and the rod is removed. Evenly textured pile is left on the warp of the carpet, which is much neat and clean in comparison knots cut individually. The texture of Tibetan carpet embraces a much even and fine look that acts to make them inspirational and favorite among people. The technique of making several loops at a time increases the pace of carpet manufacture.
  • Hand-knotted
  • Hand-tufted
  • Hand loom
  • Tibetan
  • Flat weave

Texture:
Texture denotes to the touch of a carpet, which depends on various factors, the quality and type of yarn, weave type, etc. This section further highlights the elements that affect the texture of the carpet. Carpets are an emblem of luxury, their significance in interiors is impeccable and their absence noticeable.
The texture of a carpet can give a pleasing silky feel under feet and can also insulate the room, saving electricity. Fibers encompass various quality, thickness, appear, which may transform the touch from smooth to course. Pile length also brings immense difference, where lengthy pile delights with soft lush texture. Low length pile bestows plush surface.
Count of knots and the thickness of strand play it all, the texture can be more dense and lush with the increased number of knots. Furthermore, these topics are elaborated to make it more comprehensive:

  • Type of yarn employed
  • Type of weave
  • Length of nap



Type of yarn employed:
Carpet boasts a soft and lush texture due to the type of fiber employed, fiber such as silk leads a lustrous smooth texture. Initially made using fur and wool, today, carpets are made using various diverse fibers. Wool, Silk, Hemp, Jute, Coir, Cotton, Rayon, Polyester, and Viscose are the types of fiber that give that texture to a carpet. Wool, Silk and Jute are much familiar to each of us, which bestow a soft, supple and lustrous appeal to the carpet.
Felted, twisted, thick, thin, etc are the forms of yarn generally available and implied. Frieze carpets are known for their texture that comes from the twisted wool. High quality of wool like New Zealand wool is known for endurance and sheen. Silk is loved for lustrous appeal, carpet made of silk are soft, silky and shiny textured. A combination of silk and wool is often noticed in carpets, embossing is done using both, which gives a beautiful texture to the carpet. Nevertheless, the fiber such as jute and coir are comparatively coarse.


Type of weave:
Weaving technique of a carpet plays a significant role, where cut pile and densely woven carpet possesses very soft, plush texture. Moreover, an uncut or level loop structure is capable of hiding dust and debris underneath. Flat woven carpets are pile less, contradicting them Shags are loved for their extra long length. Thus, while choosing a carpet it becomes really essential to know the type of your personal favorite.


Length of nap:
As discussed earlier the extra pile on the shag bestow the carpet that soft, lush and shaggy appear, which depends on the length and the technique. The low length carpets are helpful in hiding the marks, and are comparatively easy to clean.
A vast array of rugs and carpets leaves you in completely lost state, where all look beautiful and attractive. But after seeking these factors you will be able to understand what will suit best in your dwelling.

Density of knots:
Density of knots in various types of carpets depends on the application of yarn over warp and weft. The density of knots in hand-knotted carpet is dependent on the quality of carpet and the count of knots. The knots count in carpet may vary from 60 to 2500 in per square inch, which makes the carpet lush and dense.
In a hand tufted carpet the density varies according to the application of wool on it. The fiber used in hand tufted carpet is measured in kilograms, and it may weigh from 1 kg to maximum 5 kg in per square meter of area. The gap between each knot may not vary according to the weight, if you wish your carpet should be dense and lush you may opt for, by increasing the count of tufts in per square inch. The closer the tufts will be the dense and lush the floor covering will become.
In hand loom carpet, where the carpet is entirely woven on a wooden loom, the density will rely on the count of reed. Hand-loomed carpets do not boast knots, procedure follows, that of flat weaves. Reed in handloom carpets refers to the warp. The count of reed may vary according to the quality and vice-versa. The application of yarn is done over the warp, thus, the density of the carpet will increase with the rising count of warp strands in per square inch.

Thickness:
High and low length of the nap over the surface of the carpet denotes to the thickness. The soft and supple texture on a carpet varies with the variation in length of the pile. The quality of fiber will also play a foremost role in the thickness of a carpet. Where a low cut pile gives a plush texture, extra long pile length over shag gives it a playful texture.
Nevertheless, the limitation over the thickness may occur in cases of twisted or thick wool, where a limited count of the knots and loops can be made. Counting on the length, you can give a very sturdy and neat look with low cut pile, which will also help in hiding the dust, the footprints and vacuum marks. Moreover, the length of the pile should always be considered according to the traffic that carpet bears.

Pile:
The importance of pile type in a carpet has already been discussed under various sections. The endurance of your favorite master piece may long last if you chose the best suitable piece according to the flow of traffic. Underneath details will elaborate the subject, facilitating you to get your rug customized.


To understand various types of piles of carpet, it is really essential to know what a carpet pile is.
Carpet pile is the dense lush fiber that is woven over a foundation to make a rug or a carpet. A carpet is made on the foundation of warp and weft made using cotton fiber strands. Diverse qualities of floor covering embrace the strand according to its quality and weave type. The application of yarn over and surrounding the warp and weft create the pile over it. As mentioned earlier, rugs and carpets are made using numerous fibers, and various type of weaving technique.


The techniques that are implied to weave a carpet embrace diverse type of piles over them that can also depend on the type of fiber. Cut pile is most loved texture in floor covering, not only it gives a plush texture, it also help in hiding the footprints and vacuum marks. A cut pile portrays knot length that is cut over the surface of the floor covering and height varies on high cut or low cut pile. The density of the knots and the thickness of the pile make the carpet plush and luxuriant.


Plush is not actually the type of weaving technique, it is the texture that cut piles weave gives to a carpet. Plush carpets are velvety soft and loved under feet. In cut pile carpets the length may vary accordingly. Saxony and Frieze carpets are the best exemplary of plush carpets.


Shags are known round the world for their appearance, long pile length, these carpets are helpful in hiding the dust underneath the pile length. Shaggy carpet may vary in looks and texture according to the length of the pile and the type of fiber. The length varies according to the demand and design, and you may discover long, short or mini lengthen pile. Twisted yarn over a Shaggy carpet may vary from smooth fluffy feel.


Uncut loop pile denotes the surface of the carpet with the knots that are not cut. Such carpet surface embraces the loops over it, and suits best for the high traffic areas, where it can hide all the dust and stain on the foundation, not showing them up on the surface. Cut and loop pile, clear from its name only, these embrace an uneven texture, where high and low effect comes due the pile length and type. According to the pattern, pile of the carpet is kept cut and left uncut in loop form.
Frieze generally showcases a twisted yarn that is often recommended for high traffic areas. The length of pile varies according to the design and requirement.


  • Cut pile
     
- Low cut pile
     
- High cut pile
  • Loop or Uncut pile
     
- Level loop
     
- Multi loop
  • Shag
  • Cut and loop pile
  • Frieze

 
 

 

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